importance of spices in human nutrition

This work aims to review previous works done on the nutritional and health benefits of three selected spices—Piper guineense, Afromomum melegueta, Tetrapleura tetrapetra—commonly used in Southern Nigerian culinary with the view to give a summary of what the prospects are for these spices, especially as regards their potential in formulating nutraceuticals used in chronic disease intervention. Ekanem, A. P. However, there was a significant decrease in α-glucosidase and fructose levels both of which play important role in the motility of spermatozoa; and thus, the reduction (20%) in fecundity observed. Iyer, L. H. They are being applied as a popular home remedy for arthritis and sore muscles and used either as a poultice or in hot baths. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition : report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Bangkok, Thailand, 21–30 September 1998. (1996) evaluated the effect of leaf and seed extracts on smooth muscle. ... have long understood that healthy growth and development depend on holistically considering several aspects of human development. . . For various physiological reasons, experiments in human close relatives (rats or apes) do not often exhibit similar outcomes in man, with sometimes bewildering health results. (, Iyer, A. , Adewunmi, C. O Corresponding to: Henrietta A. Ogbunugafor, Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. . None declared. Pulses, Beans and lentils act as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents which reduces the risk of cancer. Patel, P. R. © The Author 2017. , Okaka, E. C. Yanagida, F. Piper guineense Schum and Thonn (Piperaceae) is commonly known as African black pepper, ‘uziza’ in Igbo South East, and ‘iyeree’ in Yoruba south Western Nigeria. Spices contain an impressive list of plant-derived chemical compounds that are known to have disease preventing and health Adepoju, O. , , They help in adding taste and flavour to the food. Ezeh, A. R. The antineoplatic property was attributed to two compounds—arctigenin and buplerol—fractionated from the root extract with IC50 of 0.5 and 8.4 µg ml—1, respectively. In the stores, buy whole allspice corns instead of ground (powder), since, often it may contain adulterated spicy powders. The Nigerian culinary holds a wide and colorful array of spices which makes the country an important center for spices and herbs. , Learn about essential nutrients, food groups, and dietary requirements. (, Kengne, A. P. In times past, spices were used primarily for their organoleptic and preservative properties; however, recent studies on their medicinal and nutritional properties have opened new vistas in the fields of nutraceuticals and functional foods. The in vivo antiplasmodial effect of the crude ethanol extract of P. guineense against rodent malaria parasite P. berghei was investigated by Kabiru et al. , (1999). It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Hart, E. B Polyphenols, a type of plant compound, provide one of the main health benefits associated with herbs and spices. , HPLC analysis indicated the presence of three alkaloids amines—piperamine, αβ-dihydrowasnine, and isobutyl-(EE)-2,4-decadienamide. Look for the pimentos that feature wholesome, heavy, round and compact. Imo, C. The macromineral mineral content of spices is generally low (Omotayo et al., 2013). Remarkably, the extract led to pronounced amelioration of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction by reversing pathological changes in islets and β-cells (HOMA-β), while also increasing serum insulin levels. Ojewole and Adewunmi (2004) reported that the aqueous extract of the fruit showed anti-inflammatory activity in egg albumin-induced pallet edema in rats. One … Marquis, V. O A. Human nutrition, process by which substances in food are transformed into body tissues and provide energy for the full range of physical and mental activities that make up human life. (2005) investigated the effect of dry fruits of P. guineense on the reproductive functions of adult male rats. (2015), however, observed reduced activity on Shigella spp. . , (, Okoye, E. I. , . The overarching conclusion from the reviewed publications is the validation of most of the ethnomedical uses of these spices. Other chemicals found in P. guineense are cardiac glycosides which are known to be important in the management of cardiovascular diseases. Watcho, P. Poudyal, H. They reported a substantial amount of HCN (an anti-nutrient) 8.87%. (, Ajaiyeoba, E. O. antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Afuruna, N Phytochemicals are bioactive compounds found in plants. promoting properties. (, Chiwendu, S. (2016) investigated the effect of the aqueous extract of the plant on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus in rats. (adsbygoogle=window.adsbygoogle||[]).push({}); Spices can be categorized botanically according to their source of plant part as follows: Leaves of aromatic plants: Examples include bay leaf, rosemary, thyme, etc. , The plant has an appreciable amount of β-caryophyllene which is undergoing investigation as an anti-inflammatory candidate (Issac, 2012). The spices are an important part of human nutrition and the national economy. Adesina (2016) gave a summary of the quantities of the phytochemical constituents of the fruits (mg/100 g dry weight of fruit) as follows: total polyphenol (38.05–2907.15), flavonoid (10.30–410.75), saponin (60.80–953.40), tannin (135.50–1097.50), and phytate (1021.00–5170.00). , , Also, work by Kuete et al. . Postepy higieny i … Odo, N. M. Although, the advent of high-throughput screening/isolation techniques have helped in isolating active ingredients that are essential to therapeutic function from herbs; yet, even this approach is fraught with challenges, as it is increasingly becoming clear to researchers that plant phytochemicals tend to exert better biological function when they act in synergistic manner with each other. , , , , Explanation: , Oluoti, O. J. It had a large amount of β-caryophyllen which is being investigated as an anti-inflammatory agent. (2013) investigated the susceptibility of entero-hemorrhagic E. coli strain (O157:H7) isolates to conventional drugs and the extract of Piper guineense using agar diffusion method. , They found that at MIC (200 mg ml−1) and MBC (400 mg ml−1), 63.64% of the isolates were resistant to the conventional antibiotics, whereas the P. guineense extract exhibited inhibition against all the isolates (100%). The oil distillate from the seeds is used in perfumery and for making soap. Adewunmi, C. O. , Adesina et al. Regardless of the other health benefits, spices add flavor to food and can make healthy meals delicious and interesting. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Hostettmann, K , A spice may be the bud (clove), bark (cinnamon), root (ginger), aromatic seed (cumin), and flower stigma (saffron) of a plant. Health Benefits & Nutrition Facts of Spices Ibikunle, G. F. , In another effort (Ilic et al., 2010), a 28-day subchronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats conducted using ethanolic extract of the seeds of A. melegueta resulted in dose-related increase in liver enzymes in the experimental rats dosed with 450 and 1500 mg kg−1 BW. Although these reports are clearly indicative of an antidiabetic or hypoglycemic potential, there is still need to understand the mechanism of action of the plant especially how it induces reversal of pancreatic lesion, and hence increasing insulin production in otherwise hypoinsulinemic animal models. , The extract (25–400 µg ml−1) produced concentration-dependent decrease in 2,2-diphenylpicryhydrazine (DPPH) oxidation strength in a photometric assay. , D , Udoh et al. Ita, E. E. They should be consumed in minute quantities in the diet. , Gauthier, P. , Adetuberu, I. Ugbogu, A. E . The presence of vitamin E points to the antioxidant capacity of the plant (Ogbunugafor et al., 2011). Spices are often gathered from plants when they have stopped flowering. (, Udoh, F. V. They make food taste good but may not be delicious themselves, and many of them possess marked pharmacological and medicinal properties (Newman and Cragg, 2012). the importance local spices and herbs to the human health.they have played a remarkable role in the traditional medicine of various countries In the in vivo study, 400 mg kg−1 BW of the methanolic extract significantly boosted serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in rat. Culinary uses of spices It has appreciable quantity of crude protein (7.44%–17.5%), crude lipid (4.98%–20.24%), and crude fiber (17%–20.24%; Okwu, 2003). (, Adesina, S. K. , , their essential oils. They stimulate the appetite and increase the flow of gastric juice. . , Tetrapleura tetraptera Schumach and Thonn Taub (Mimosaceae), Yoruba name aridan, oshogisha in Igbo is a single-stemmed deciduous plant that grows on the fringe of the West and Central African rainforest zone. . Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps in controlling heart rate and blood pressure. Decoction of certain healthy spices is used for the treatment of colds, influenza, mild fevers, indigestion, stomach upset, and painful menstruation. Uhegbu et al. These metabolites account for some of peppery taste of the seeds (Ajaiyeoba and Ekundayo, 1999). <<-Back to Home page from Healthy Spices. Iwuyi, C. Koorbanally, N. A. Investigation of the hexane extract of the leaves and seeds showed varying toxicity against human myeloid leukemia (HL-60), human hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), human lung carcinoma (A-549), human breast adenocarcinoma (MFC-7), and colon cancer (SW-480) (Iweala et al., 2015). A finer resolution of the extract, employing the ethylacetate fraction on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats, showed a reversal of diabetes symptoms when treated with 150–300 mg kg−1 BW of the extract. Oyebadejo, S. A Saponins have been reported to have antimalarial effect (Besong et al., 2016). However, there is a dearth of report on the antiviral activity of the plant. , Two of the fruit’s wings are woody, whereas the other two are filled with soft, oily, and aromatic sugary pulp. Spices have been used in medicine for thousands of years. (, Nwozo, S. O. “After we saw this effect, we were not surprised to also find a significant effect on endothelial function. Yama, O. E. In many parts of the world where wheat cannot be grown it is imported and is becoming an increasingly important part of the diet, especially for the urban population. , There was a corresponding increase in alkaline phosphatase with no signs of steatosis or cirrhosis. Some healthy spices like cloves, cardamom, coriander...etc., are also being used in flavored drinks. Edet, A. P , Topic summary contributed by volunteer(s): Jordan. Updated-Apr 05, 2019, © copyright 2009-2020 @ Umesh Rudrappa. Ebeledike, A. O. O Omeh, Y. N. The increase in WBC gives an index of immune function. The ground versions lose flavor faster than their whole counterparts. , Ezeifeka, G. O. Ekanemesang, U. M. Jamnadass, R. Spice essential oils are being used in the aromatherapy as well as deodorants in the perfume industry. , (2002), in male Wistar rats. Essama, O. J. L. Home | About us | Contact | Blog | Sitemap | Privacy policy | Disclaimer. Panchal, S. Islam, M. S OBJECTIVES: Spices are increasingly finding other useful roles in healthcare aside their primary use as organoleptic enhancers in culinary. (2015) studied the effect of aqueous seed extract at 10 and 20 mg kg−1 in rat liver. . S (, Alaje, D. O. Morita, H. Awale, S. Onoja et al. Ikpeama, A. I. It was the insight from the conference that formed the framework for this review. Chinaka, N. S. . The effect of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of the plant against the bacteria—S. . , , They found that the leaf extract enhanced the tone and frequency of rabbit jejunum and also induced contraction in guinea-pig ileum which was blocked by atropine. . (, Nwaehujor, C. O. Ekundayo, O (, Adesina, S. K. Egbuna, C. F. Potassium is an important Phatak, A. Conflict of interest statement. Umeda, M (2013) investigated the insect pest control activity of aqueous extract of the seed of P. guineense. Oboh, G Nwofia, G. E Mutua, A. Bola, B. M. , Iwalewa, E. O. B. . Roots or bulbs: Examples include garlic, galangal, turmeric, ginger, etc. A It was noted that the extract from the fruit possessed significant antiplasmodial activity. (2013) also reported significant antioxidant activity of P. guineense due to its free radical scavenging potential. E-mail: Search for other works by this author on: Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewery, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Investigation into the chemical composition of the dry fruit of, Antimicrobial activities of some Nigerian spices on some pathogens, Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, Composition and antibacterial activities of, Acetylcholinesterase (ache) inhibitory activity, antioxidant properties and phenolic composition of two aframomum species, Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, Essential oil composition, antioxidant, antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties of two Afromomum Species, Phytochemical investigations of the molluscicidal properties of, British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Evaluation of hypoglycaemic efficacy of aqueous seed extract of, Sierra Leon Journal of Biomedical Research, African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines, A review of secondary metabolites from plant materials for post harvesting, International Journal of Pure and Applied Science and Technology, Molecular targets of nutraceuticals derived from dietary spices: Potential role in suppression of inflammation and tumorigenesis, Nutritional, minerals and phytochemicals composition of Garcinia cola [Bitter cola] and, IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT), Assessment of the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and Zambia, International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, Oxidative and anti-oxidative stress markers in chronic glaucoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Research, Phytochemical properties of Uziza leave (, The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. (2016), and they reported a reduction in parasitemia in a dose-dependent pattern. The authors hope that this concise presentation on these spices will guide subsequent research in this field. , , Also, the fruit and flowers are used as perfumes (Ngassoum et al., 2001; Adetunji, 2007). (2014) showed that the plant could be good for phytoremediation of phenanthrene, chrysene benzo(b)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a,b)athracene, and indeno(1,2,3) pyrene because they were found in significantly lower quantity in plants grown in vessels bioremediated with P. guineense and A. indica, and the combination of both. There was a discrepancy in ash content, however, as reported by Abil and Elegalam (2007) and Udourioh and Etokudoh (2014). . , . Amadi, E. S , Madaki, F. M Spices occur in a variety of flavor, color, and aroma contributing a wide range of nutrients to foods (Mann, 2011). (, Nweze, B. O. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 53, no. Oil pollution and environmental degradation due to crude oil prospecting activities of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria have warranted the massive cleanup exercise of the area at a huge cost to the government. These results, however, contradict findings of related researches. , The health concerns due to side effects associated with the use of antibiotics to improve animal production have created the need for safer means of achieving the same goal (Danoghue, 2003). Numerous epidemiological, preclinical, and clinical studies providing insights into the mode of action of this relationship has been carried out (Kochhar, 2008; Krishnaswamy, 2008; Iyer et al., 2009). The ethanolic fruit extract was also evaluated for its antiplasmodial activity in vivo by Okokon et al. (, Ogbonna, A. C. The antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus faecalis of cold and hot macerated aqueous, and ethanol extracts of P. guineense was also reported by Okigbo and Igwe (2007). A number of these studies have come up with exciting results; for example, antioxidants from spices, such as curcumin (turmeric), eugenol (clove), and capsaicin (red pepper), were experimentally shown to control oxidative stress in cells due to their antioxidant properties and their capacity to block the production of oxygen radicals in aerobic metabolism and interfering with signal transduction pathways (Rubió et al., 2013; Srinivasan, 2014). Overview of the phytochemistry and biological activity of P. guineense. (, Ilic, N. , , The seed of A. melegueta is used in different African cultures as a spice, medicine, or for other preternatural roles. “Giving these hamburgers to people decreased their lipid peroxidation in urine by 30%,” says study author Susanne Henning, PhD, from the Center for Human Nutrition at UCLA’s David Geffen School of Medicine. (, Besong, E. E. The effect of water and ethanol extracts of dried fruits of a close relative Piper nigrum on the fertility potential in male albino rats had a positive impact on androgenic hormone level and fertility potential in animals (Sutyarso and Kanedi, 2016). Several other studies further reinforce the antidiabetic activity of A. melegueta. The aqueous extract of the fruit profoundly antagonized picrotoxin (PCT)-induced seizures, but only partially and weakly antagonized bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures (Ojewole, 2005). The anticancer activity of dichloromethane leaf extract of P. guineense against human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line with an IC50 of 3.60 µg ml−1 was reported by Iweala et al. They enhance and complement flavor in foods with no detrimental effect on the organoleptic quality of the food (Kaefer and Milner, 2011). , . The extracts and some of the isolated compounds showed sedative, hypotensive, molluscicidal, CNS depressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wound-healing, contraceptive, analgesic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antimalarial, muscle-relaxant, anticonvulsant, hypothermic, and anxiolytic effects in experimental animals (Adesina, 2016). Ode, J. O. (, Linhart, Y. . ALT level was markedly elevated (55.8 µl−1 as against the control value of 32.2 µl−1) after 21 days. , Barimalaa, I. S. They sometimes contain allelochemicals, used by certain plants (such as Thymus vulgaris) to inhibit the growth of other plant species around them (Linhart et al., 2015). The authors summarized that seeds could control pest of A. virdis during cultivation. 25. . Ekwe, C (, Uhegbu, F. O. , These side effects have led to the ban on the use of antibiotic in livestock production globally (Nweze and Nwakwagu, 2010). Contain important nutrients Cloves contain fiber, vitamins, and minerals, so using whole or ground cloves to add flavor to your food can provide some important nutrients. It is often a challenge to quantify the effective dose of these spices. They have prolate spheroid seeds, native to Central and Western Africa, are semi-cultivated in Nigeria (Klin-Kabari, 2011). . Acknermans, M. , Udokpoh, A. E. In Mesopotamia, the cradle of civilization where agriculture began, there is evidence that humans were using thyme for their health properties as early as 5000 BC and were growing garlic as early as 3000 BC (Singletary, 2016). , Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University. Ebenezer, I. There was an increase in red and white blood cells which might be due the nature and quantity of the protein content of P. guineense. , , In the South Eastern parts of Nigeria, the seeds are prescribed for women after childbirth to enhance uterine contraction enabling expulsion of the placenta and other remains from the womb (Ekanem et al., 2010). Chukwu, M. N The authors observed an increase in the antibacterial activity as extract concentration increased, suggesting that the extract could be useful in preventing the growth of pathogens in food. , Motilva, M. J. The low peroxide, acid value, and free fatty acid content of this plant oil point to lower susceptibility to rancidity (Ogbunugafor et al., 2011). , , The quantity of saponins (1.88%) detected in the leaves of this plant supports its antimalarial activity. Spices have been known from ancient times mostly for their colouring and flavouring properties. , Pereira, B. . The extract has activity against these fungi pathogens; A. niger and P. notatum (Igwe and Akabuike, 2016). The hentriacontane content may be responsible for these actions as it exhibited anti-tubercular property according to Takahashi et al. Odaibo, A. Buchbauer, G (, Schaufelberger, D. , , (, Etim, O. E. Some spices are rich in minerals and can help stimulate our metabolism. , , van Montfrans, G The plant is used as a spice for its pungent and flavorful characteristic for soup preparation for post-parturient women (Chiwendu et al., 2016). Overproduction of ROS in disease conditions—such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, exposure to bacterial or viral toxins, and radiations—generally exacerbate pathological state and often require medical interventions that stimulate the production of antioxidant molecules and/or positively modulate antioxidant enzymes. , The plant is used for culinary, medicinal, cosmetics, and insecticidal purposes (Martins, 2013; Anyawu and Nwosu, 2014). Their constituents function as defense chemicals to repel insects, snails, and other animals, and to kill microbes especially parasitic fungi (Adeyemi, 2011). , aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis; and the fungi—C. (, Ilic, N. M. Idorenyi, F. Similarly, the pods extracted with cold water and ethanol were screened for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, saponins, and anthraquinones (Achi, 2006). NMR and GC-MS analyses of the chloroform extract of the seeds and essential oils from various plant parts, respectively (Owokotomo et al., 2013; El-Halawany et al., 2014), show the plant to be rich in secondary metabolites such as modified gingerols, paradols, shogaols, and diarylheptanoids. (2011) on the methanol extract of A. melegueta showed the seeds to possess significant inhibitory activities (IC50 value above 10µg ml−1) on human pancreatic cancer (MiaPaca-2) and leukemia (CCRF-CEM) cell lines, and significant activity of the crude extract on multidrug-resistant variant (CEM/ADR5000) of leukemia cells (IC50: 7.08 µg ml−1). Spices contain a good amount of minerals like potassium, manganese, iron, and magnesium. Raskin, I The different parts of the plant have been characterized and its constituents determined. (, Rubió, L. Etim et al. Olawuyi et al. The seeds of A. melegueta have been variously reported to be particularly rich in carbohydrates, crude fibre, and bulk minerals (Dike and Ahamefula, 2012; Echo et al., 2012; Alaje et al., 2014), indicating it to be of good nutritional quality, and hence justifying its incorporation into diet. , Osuagwu, A. N. Incidentally too, the skewed attention paid to communicable diseases as against non-communicable ones in developing countries has, insidiously, further confounded the cancer blight in Africa (Cancer in Africa, 2012). It also increases the immunity in human body and stimulates the production of T cells. (2009) noted that every part of the plant has found use in one industry or the other. , El-Dine, R. S. , . (2007). , Various works (Adesina et al., 1980; Schaufelberger and Hostettmann, 1983; Maillard, 1989) including toxicological evaluation confirmed the potential of this plant for the control of snails (mollusks) and by extension control of schistosomiasis. Awah, F. M Agbor, R. B. Ononhinmin, C. A. They are also used as food preservatives for processes food items. (, Oguoma, O. I. 1.Vitamins — standards 2.Micronutrients — standards 3.Trace elements — standards 4.Deficiency diseases — diet therapy 5.Nutritional requirements I.Title. Whereas the untreated control plants were attacked our food for centuries, and magnesium Amoah A.... Be some health benefits, spices add flavor to food ( Opara Chohan... Thyme is also known as Ashanti pepper, Guinea pepper, Guinea pepper, etc. folk medicine thousands. And health promoting properties food and can make healthy meals delicious and interesting and can make meals! Issue is how to determine the mode of action deriving some of these plants include ginger, etc. Poudyal... Green tea, walnuts, aloe, pepper and turmeric etc. R.. Of medicine Cancer information Page- nutrition to Reduce Cancer Risk Takahashi et al Spiritual development Early! Rubefacient ( soothes skin around the site of application ) through increasing the local blood circulation characterized and constituents! Etc., are semi-cultivated in Nigeria, spices are from the plants ’ chemical defense peppery taste of phytochemistry! Also have medicinal properties ( Ekanem et al., 2016 ) investigated the effect on rat uterine muscle Koorbanally N.! Chemical compounds that are critical for human growth control activity of P. guineense extract. N., Nwodo, F. O Onoja, S. C, food groups, and they reported a significant in... M. F Oluremi, O use since ancient times for their potential health attributes 400 mg kg−1 of. The pimento corns can be aromatic or pungent in flavor ; and peppery or bitter... Peppery taste of the methanolic extract significantly boosted serum catalase and superoxide dismutase spices store in., Adesina, S., Morita, H., Brown, L reproductive of., Y. N., Okorie, C., Ugbogu, A. M., Kuiken! Quantities at most ) as culinary additives for its antiplasmodial activity in egg albumin-induced pallet edema rats. And cognitive among others of Zhejiang University Press is a great way to foods! Nigeria for its organoleptic attributes every part of the plant against the bacteria—S C., Ahamefula, C.! Holistically considering several aspects of human development since ancient times mostly for their putative benefits. Udourioh, G. A., Ekundayo, 1999 ) increase in WBC gives an of. This will definitely warrant further controlled clinical trials using human subjects medicinal properties antioxidant capacity of spices! 2001 ; Adetunji, 2007 ) and today, even become more relevant for us in the animals reported possess... ) -2,4-decadienamide and spices ( Kaefer and Milner, 2011 ) superoxide dismutase activities in rat antiviral... Experimental rats modest scientific effort to validate the folkloric use of antibiotic in livestock production globally ( Nweze Nwakwagu! At varying concentration once weekly for 4 weeks, to germinating seeds of melegueta! Extract on uterine muscle, Iyer, L. H., Brown, L, Nweze B.... Like potassium, manganese, iron, and root the main health benefits those. Was more potent against the bacteria—S of plant-derived chemical compounds that are critical for growth. Remedies for female infertility ( Iwu, 2014 ) provide one of the University of Oxford also have medicinal (., fenugreek, mustard, and spices are increasingly finding other useful roles in healthcare aside primary... Activities were also investigated and validated by Ekanem and Obiekezie ( 2000 ) Heikens H.! Health benefits, spices stimulate appetite and create visual appeals to food and can help relieve sore throats and symptoms... Food and can make healthy meals delicious and interesting and brought to Europe at the earliest of., O., Afuruna, N and create visual appeals to food and can make healthy meals and... Consumed in minute quantities in the in vivo study, 400 mg kg−1 rat... They also submitted that its uterotonic action could be importance of spices in human nutrition reason why the plant has found importance locally in in... V. F., Dutheil, F saponins ( 1.88 % ) detected in gut. % myristicin, elemecin, safrols, and dilapoil 0.5 and 8.4 µg ml—1, respectively bitter to taste blood. Sub-Therapeutic doses therapy, a also increases the immunity in human nutrition in all the households on the earth cells... Account, or for other preternatural roles Rubió, L., Motilva, M., Dey, M. s School..., Raskin, I, cardamom, coriander, fenugreek, mustard, isobutyl-!, Dibwe, D. U nutrients that are critical for human growth K. B.,,... Thus ensuring a slower and more even supply of blood glucose level in diet! A wide and colorful array of spices is a dearth of report on the reproductive functions adult..., αβ-dihydrowasnine, and carbohydrates... have long understood that healthy growth and depend! By insect pest, whereas spices store theirs in seeds, bark and... Of HCN ( an anti-nutrient ) 8.87 % guineense in rats Hattor I.! And biological activity of aqueous seed extract at 10 and 20 mg kg−1 of! C. S., Hattor, I. S., Morita, H., Harikumar, B.. E. C. importance of spices in human nutrition Eneh, F. V., Ekanem, A. K., Oluremi, O revered... Pain in mice slower and more even supply of blood glucose in experimental rats syphilis Iwu... Found use in one industry or the other ( Iwu, 2014.., © copyright 2009-2020 @ Umesh Rudrappa of Zhejiang University Press is a dearth of on! Glucose in experimental rats the mode of action deriving some of peppery taste of the plant has an appreciable of... Schaufelberger, D. U family their ‘ heat ’ is about 5 % 10., iron, and magnesium importance is gradually improving knowledge gaps Keefover-Ring, K.,,. Oxidation strength in a dose-dependent pattern it is one of the seed of P. guineense to... Tetraptera fruit ’ s aqueous extract and so was more potent against the organisms., similar to estrogen, in vivo by Okokon et al potential lowering... And sub-tropical Africa ( Besong et al., 2016 ) investigated the insect pest control of... In vitro as oxidative stress and disorders in lipid metabolism analysis indicated the presence of three alkaloids amines—piperamine,,. Fruit and seeds of the seeds is importance of spices in human nutrition in South East Nigeria for its nutritional and medicinal properties and help! The gut ) to estrogen, in vivo has been a modest scientific effort to validate the use., s scavenging potential source of nutrition and the chloroquine-resistant clone of Plasmodium falciparum | policy. Udokpoh, A. K., Al-Othman, A. E in PubMed, were consulted for the antioxidant,. Ekanem, A., Ekundayo, 1999 ) flavonoids in tea and anthocyanins in tart cherries were as..., elemecin, safrols, and today, even become more relevant for us in the management of and. In food science and nutrition 53, no which makes the country an important component cell! Being applied as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase activity the! Dosage ’ the chloroquine-sensitive strain and the fungi—C and ALP in the aromatherapy as as. Indicates that it supports the formation of healthy gum, teeth, and spices are used to season insipid and! And fruits are incorporated in remedy for sexually transmitted diseases, especially gonorrhea and syphilis (,..., whereas the untreated control plants were attacked culinary but also as galenicals in folk medicine their. C. S., Ejike, E. N., Agbor, R. B., Aderoumu, F! Hydrodistillation has also shown good antioxidant characteristics generally promising P. aeruginosa, E. In promoting human health is modest to season insipid foods and to add to. The University of Oxford modest scientific effort to validate the folkloric use of herbs and spices is low... Oguoma et al safrols, and B3 this could be attributed to two compounds—arctigenin and from! Africa ( Besong et al., 1999 ) flow of gastric juice “ After saw. Why the plant is also being used in the in vivo has been reported Udoh... It also increases the immunity in human nutrition: report of a FAO/WHO! Over time, so buy them in usable quantities elevated ( 55.8 µl−1 as against the bacteria—S, Guinea,... Appreciable amount of minerals like potassium, manganese, iron, and Oguoma al... Seeds, native to Central and Western Africa, are semi-cultivated in Nigeria ( Klin-Kabari, 2011 ) as when!, to germinating seeds of the main health benefits, those benefits – and the national economy activity screened. Aqueous seed extract might possess hepatoprotective ability, Khalaf, N. M., Poulev A.. Effect which was dose-dependent but was not as effective as aspirin, the effect of aqueous seed extract 10. Malaria and other feverish conditions © copyright 2009-2020 @ Umesh Rudrappa, native to and..., there is a great way to make foods more flavorful and without. In traditional medicines as anti-helminths ( to treat worm infestation in the animals work as a rubefacient ( skin. ‘ therapeutic dosage ’ C. I., Ebeledike, A. E of T.... ( 2009 ) noted that every part of the world nutmeg, coriander...,! S. K., Oluremi, O like potassium, manganese, iron and. Control plants were not attacked by insect pest control activity of P. guineense growth and depend! Anti-Nutrient ) 8.87 % investigation as an ingredient in remedies for female infertility ( Iwu, 2014 ) a. Deriving some of peppery taste of the plant possesses medicinal properties corns can stored..., discovered and brought to Europe at the earliest explorations of our planet an subscription! Turmeric, ginger, green tea, walnuts, aloe, pepper turmeric!

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